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“1G” or sometimes stated as “1-G”, is the 1st generation of wireless telephone and mobile technology. It was the analog telecommunication standard introduced in the early 1980s.



“2.5G” is a middle age period of wireless technology between 2G and 3G. It features packet switched domain while keeping the earlier circuit switched domain. Circuit switched data services (HSCSD) and breakthrough towards GPRS are attributed to this generation.

20/40 MHz Channel Operation

It is a feature in networking devices that enables Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n products that operate with 40 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz frequency to detect other Wi-Fi devices in the channel and switch to the default mode of 20 MHz channels.

286, 386, 486 (or 80286, 80386, 80486)

Three generations of PC processor, now pretty much obsolete, the ancestors of the Pentium. The 286 was the earliest processor able to run (just about) a version of Windows, although a 386 is really the minimum to run it properly. The 486 was the earliest processor able to run Windows 95. Slowly.


“2G” or sometimes stated as “2-G”, is the 2nd generation of wireless telephone technology. It featured Digital-Encryption, more efficiency, Data Services such as Short Messaging Service (SMS).



“3G” is a term used to describe the 3rd generation of mobile telephony which brings value added services such as broadband Internet and video calling to cell phones.


40 MHz Channel Operation

An operating mode in networking devices through which data travels using two channels joined for higher performance. This mode is not capable of detecting devices operating at 20 MHz channel.


64 Architecture

Intel”s 64 Architecture is a CPU technology. It improves performance of system by allowing it to use more than 4GB memory both physical and virtual.



An IEEE standard for a wireless networks operating at 5 GHz frequency with up to 54Mbps data rates.


An IEEE standard for a wireless networks operating at 2.4 GHz frequency with up to 11Mbps data rates.


An IEEE specification that deals with configuration changes at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer.


An IEEE standard which is used to include Quality of Service (QoS) features for the existing wireless networks such as 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a.


An IEEE standard for a Wi-Fi (WLAN) that operates at 2.4GHz frequency with up to 54Mbps data rates.


An IEEE standard that supports “Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)” and “Transmit Power Control (TPC)”. It is used to make flawless communication between Wi-Fi and other types of RF devices in the 5GHz frequency range.


An IEEE specification, that deals with the security of wireless networks. It features Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) that includes enhancement in user authentication, data integrity of headers and key management.


An IEEE specification based on the Japanese regulatory requirements for wireless networks. It includes output power of wireless transmitter, modes of operation, channel arrangements and spurious emission levels.


An IEEE standard for Wi-Fi networks featuring support for “Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)” technology. 802.11n certified products can operate in both 2.4GHz or 5GHz frequencies and are compatible with legacy networks such as 802.11 (a/b/g).


An IEEE standard for port-based authentication, used in wired networks earlier but later adopted in 802.11 wireless networks. It provides a framework for user authentication, access control, network protection and dynamic encryption keys.


Computer networking standard that defines “Wired” Ethernet networks.



Abend is a short form of “Abnormal end.” In computers it is referred to a sudden and abnormal ending of a process. Usually it is referred to unexpected closure of operating system and software applications.

Accelerated Graphics Port

The “Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)” is a point-to-point channel capable of transferring data at high-speed. It is used for attaching a graphics card to a system, usually for acceleration of 3D graphics.


Access is a short form of Microsoft Access database program that is part of MS Office Suite.

Access Point

An access point is a device that provides wireless connectivity to a network. Normally mobile devices such as laptops, internet tablets and other gadgets require access point to provide connectivity to internet.

Access Time

“Access Time” is term use to describe Hard Drive’s performance of retrieving data. The less time value is; the better drive performance will be.


ACL stands for “Access Control List”. This list contains users with specific rights and control over system resources. Usually routers maintains list of internet users to control their activity.


Active Matrix is a high quality LCD screen normally used in notebooks and high end IT gadgets such as media players, mp3 players and cell phones.


ActiveX is a framework technology developed by Microsoft. In MS Windows operating system, many applications such as Internet Explorer, MS Office, MS Visual Studio and Windows Media Player use ActiveX controls to build their features set and encapsulate their functionality.


ADC stands for “Analog to Digital Converter”. Many devices such as sound cards and video capturing controllers features ADC chip on board.


Add-on is a term usually refers to software plug-ins and applications that enhance in built functions or add new features. Add-ons are found for most open source application such as Mozilla Firefox browser that is compatible with a list of add-ons.


Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is data communication technology that allows faster data transmission over same telephone line that is used by a traditional modem for much slower transmission.

Advanced Dynamic Execution

Advanced Dynamic Execution is technology developed by Intel for its Core based processors. It features an engine that controls the processor’s execution units for executing instructions smoothly.

Advanced Graphics Port

The “Advanced or (Accelerated) Graphics Port (AGP)” is a point-to-point channel capable of transferring data at high-speed. It is used for attaching a graphics card to a system, usually for acceleration of 3D graphics.


The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric-key encryption standard. AES has a fixed block size of 128-bits and a key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits. It is used in the implementation of WPA2.


Intel Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) New Instructions (AES-NI) set is comprised of six new processor instructions that perform several compute intensive parts of the AES algorithm. Those instructions are AESENC, AESENCLAST, AESDEC, AESDECLAST, AESKEYGENASSIST and AESIMC.


Aggregation is techniques that are used to make the data transmission more efficient in wireless network (Wi-Fi).


The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is a point-to-point channel capable of transferring data at high-speed. It is used for attaching a graphics card to a system, usually for acceleration of 3D graphics.


AIFF stands for “Audio Interchange File Format”. It was originally developed by Apple and is widely used in Macintosh computers. This format is capable of storing audio in uncompressed and lossless form unlike more famous MP3 format.


AIMM stands for “AGP Inline Memory Module”, is an add-on for select motherboards operating with Intel chipset. It is also known as GPA (Graphics Performance Accelerator) for its ability to provide dedicated memory for on-board graphics controller.


AirPort is a brand used by Apple Inc for its local area wireless networking products. It is based on the IEEE 802.11 standard which is also known as Wi-Fi (WLAN).

Alert Box

An alert box is pop up message box that is used to display warnings or confirmation message.


An algorithm is a set of instructions that is use to execute a particular function.


In computer terms, an “analog” or “analog signal” is a continuous stream of information, whereas the “digital signal” is the estimate of analog data using “ones” and “zero” only.


Android is an operating system for mobile devices owned by Google, it is based on the customized version of the Linux kernel.


ANSI stands for “American National Standards Institute” that is primarily responsible for supervising the development and implementation of standards on services and products with in USA and worldwide.


Stands for “Access Point”, is a device that provides wireless connectivity to a network. Normally mobile devices such as laptops, internet tablets and other gadgets require access point to provide connectivity to internet.


API stands for “Application Programming Interface” is a utility for different types of software to make use of services and resources provided by the program that implements API.


Apple is the manufacturer of Macintosh computers and Mac Operating System. Apple has distinct position in the computer market provided with its range of products that cover from servers to tablet gadgets like iPad.

Apple TV

Apple TV is a small form factor digital media receiver that is designed to provide connectivity with IPTV. It is also capable of going online and play digital content from iTunes Store, YouTube, MobileMe, Flickr, or at the same time connecting to any computer running iTunes application on either Microsoft Windows or Mac OS platform.


Applet can be defined as a small application designed to perform a specific task either on the front or back end. They are not full-featured by design; examples of applets include MS Windows applications such as “Notepad” and “Paint”.


An application also called application program is type of software that communicates with the system software and user. Examples of application programs are Internet browsers, e-mail programs such as MS Outlook and media programs such as MS Windows Media Player.


Archive is a process of inserting multiple files or folders in a single file for backup storage or increasing free space on local storage.


ARP stands for “Address Resolution Protocol”, is network protocol that is use to find the Mac address or host link layer with an IP.


An array can be defined as organized placement of objects in (but not limited to) rows and columns.

ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

An early and very basic format for text files, standard across pretty much all computers and mail systems. It only includes upper and lower case letters, numbers, and standard punctuation marks, but more sophisticated text formats still tend to be based on it. An ASCII file is a basic text-only file generated by a program like Notepad.


ASP stands for “Active Server Pages”, is a “server-side script-engine” that generates web pages dynamically. It was introduced by Microsoft as a component of Windows Server.


ASP.NET is the successor of Microsoft ASP (component of Windows Server) technology. Build on the “Common Language Runtime (CLR)”; ASP.NET serves as a web application framework that allows programmers to write code using any supported “.NET” language.


Association in terms of file system is a default connection of file type with a specific application program such as “Adobe Reader” with “PDF”. In terms of networking, association describes the establishment of wireless link between two devices; it could be cell phones via “Bluetooth” or laptops via “Access Point”.

Asynchronous Memory

“Asynchronous Memory” is a memory module that runs on low speed bus system. This type of memory is does not coordinate (synchronize) with the system clock.


ATA stands for “Advanced Technology Attachment” also known as “Parallel ATA (PATA)”, is a storage interface standard in which data travels through a “Parallel” protocol. Among the devices that used this standard includes hard drives and optical drives.


Athlon is a mainstream product line of PC based micro-processors manufactured by AMD Inc. It was the first processor in the PC platform to reach a core clock speed of 1GHz (1000MHZ+). Athlon has gone a long way in technological advancement from 1999 when it was first introduced. This lineup includes Athlon, XP/MP, 64, 64 FX, 64 X2, Neo, and X2 Dual Core, based for different chipset and socket configurations.


ATM stands for “Asynchronous Transfer Mode”, is a technique for switching in communication networks. It uses small fixed cells which stores encoded information using “Asynchronous Time-division Multiplexing” technology.


Atom is a microprocessor brand by Intel Corporation. It is designed in 45 nm CMOS technology and is one of the ultra-low voltage consuming processor in the market for PC platform. Atom has gone through several technological advancements, from single-core to dual-core and On-die “GPU”. It is mainly targeted for mobile devices such as laptops and internet tablets, in which primary focus is of the system designers remains on power consumption.


Authentication is a process where network or system verifies the identity of a wireless device or a user who attempts to create a connection for accessing recourses.

Auto Precharge

“Auto Pre-charge” or “Memory Auto Pre-charge” is an option in BIOS of motherboard chipset that allows user to activate or deactivate rows in banks of memory module.



A backbone is the core of any network that provides connectivity for sub-networks. It can be either wireless or wired and usually is the main data transmission channel in enterprise level organizations.

Backside Bus

Backside Bus also known as “Back Side Bus” and “BSB” is data transmission bus in an IBM compatible PC motherboard that is dedicated for CPU to Cache connection. In older Intel processors, it was usually “L2” cache that was connected through this bus.


Backup usually refers to storage of data in file, folder or archive, in more durable storage mediums such as tape, optical and raid systems with anticipation of retrieval in future.


Backwards-compatible can be defined as a program or application capable of working with older versions of data generated by legacy software. In terms of hardware it refers to a device that is capable of performing at lower level to meets system requirement, for example a USB 2.0 flash drive plugged into USB 1.1 receptacle.


DramShort for Burst EDO DRAM, BEDO is a new type of EDO DRAM that is capable of processing four memory addresses in one burst.

BIOS(Basic Input/Output System; pr. “by-oss”)

A program built into every PC for setting up very basic things, like how many hard and floppy disks you have and what type they are; the first thing that loads when you start your PC. You usually only need to access the BIOS if you are upgrading your hardware, eg adding more RAM or an extra disk drive, or setting a power-on password. BIOS settings are stored in a special type of memory called CMOS.


A high-speed wireless communication system for PCs and other computing devices. The industry is very excited about it, but the few Bluetooth devices that have made it to market so far won”t always communicate with each other reliably, so it has yet to really take off.


A standard type of graphics file. An uncompressed format, so the files tend to be fairly big.



Central Processing Unit. This is the part of the computer that is also referred to as the processor..

CRT(Cathode Ray Tube)

The imaging technology used in most desktop monitors. Provides an excellent colour display, but is extremely bulky and is now being gradually supplanted by TFT.


DDR(Double Data Rate)

A very fast type of RAM for a PC, originally only used on high performance graphics cards but now being used for general memory in most high-end PCs.


A computer designed to sit on a desk (as opposed to a laptop). In Windows, it also means the screen you see when you aren”t running any programs, with “My Computer”, the Recycle Bin and so on

DIMM(Dual In-line Memory Module; pr. “dim”)

A module of RAM (memory) for a PC, replacing the older SIMM specification.


An area on a disk for storing files, particularly in DOS. Usually called a folder in Windows

DOS(Disk Operating System; pr. “doss”)

DOS was the standard operating system for PCs until Windows 95 came out. Will run on any PC. Controlled by typing in text commands and has several serious limitations, but requires a much less powerful computer than Windows 95 and there is a huge library of software available for it.

dpi(Dots Per Inch)

A measure of picture quality, often used to measure printer capabilities. The higher the number, the better the quality.


A small program used by the operating system to control hardware such as a sound or video card. Often downloading the latest driver for a device from the manufacturer”s website will improve its functionality.


A PC processor – AMD”s budget chip, cheaper than the Athlon but also less powerful.

DVD(Digital Versatile Disk)

A more advanced version of the standard CD which can hold far more information, now standard on most new PCs. Widely used for high-quality digital movies. DVD drives can usually also read ordinary CDs.


EIDE(Extended Industry Standard Architecture; pr. “ee-icer”)

An upgraded version of ISA, now obsolete; usually used with reference to expansion cards.

Ethernet(Extended Industry Standard Architecture; pr. “ee-icer”)

An upgraded version of ISA, now obsolete; usually used with reference to expansion cards.


The most popular spreadsheet program for PCs, part of the Microsoft Office suite

exe (or .exe)(EXEcutable; pr. “exie”, “dot exie” )

A file which is usually the main part of a program. A program may consist of just an exe file and nothing else, or there may be dozens of files, including more exes.

Expansion slot

A socket on a PC motherboard into which you can insert expansion cards to increase the PC”s capabilities. Most PCs have several PCI slots, plus an AGP slot for a graphics card.



Gigahertz – billions of cycles per second. Often used as a measurement of a PC processor chip”s speed and power, with bigger numbers meaning a bit more speed, and a higher price. 1000 MHz = 1.0 GigaHertz. See also MHz.

GIF(Graphics Interchange Format)

A popular type of compressed graphics (picture) file, widely used on the WWW. Best for pictures with 16 or fewer colours. See also jpg, compression.

Gigabyte (or Gig)(Graphics Interchange Format)

A popular type of compressed graphics (picture) file, widely used on the WWW. Best for pictures with 16 or fewer colours. See also jpg, compression.


Hard disk

A computer”s main (and fastest and most convenient) storage for programs and data. Originally named to distinguish it from floppy disks. All PCs are fitted with hard disks, sometimes more than one. The first (or only) hard disk is usually called C: by the computer. The most popular hard disk format is called EIDE.


A basic device for connecting computers together to form a network


ISA(Industry Standard Architecture; pr.”icer”)

A once-common type of PC expansion card, now obsolete; see also EISA, PCI.


Kbps(KiloBits Per Second)

A measure of speed of information flow, usually over a modem. A Kilobit is a thousand bits. See also bps, Mbps.


LAN(Local Area Network; pr.”lan”)

A network of computers connected together, usually in a single department or building. See also WAN.


Mac address

The unique serial number of an Ethernet card, required for connecting a PC to a network. (Nothing to do with Apple Macs, despite the name).

Mbps(MegaBits Per Second)

A measure of speed of information flow over a network (and if it”s measured in Mbps, it”s pretty quick.) A Megabit is one million bits. See also bps, Kbps.


Unit of measurement for pieces of information : approximately 1 million bytes or a thousand kilobytes. Often shortened to Meg or just M. See also Gigabyte, Kilobyte, Byte.


A million pixels. Often used to measure the quality of digital cameras : the higher the number the better the camera.


Also known as RAM. Where the computer holds whatever you are currently working on. The contents of memory are lost when the computer is switched off.


SCSI(Small Computer Systems Interface; pr. “scuzzy”)

A fast system for controlling hard disks, tape drives, and various other add-ons. Sometimes used for a PC”s main hard disk, but more often the main hard disk is controlled by an IDE or EIDE controller built into the motherboard. A SCSI controller would usually be installed as an expansion board. SCSI is a bit faster than EIDE, but more expensive

SIMM(Single In-line Memory Module; pr.”sim”)

A module of RAM for a 486 or Pentium I PC. Replaced by DIMMs on newer computers.

SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

The original method of transmitting and receiving email on the internet. Still often used for transmitting, but has been widely replaced by POP3 for receiving.


TCP/IP(Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

A common protocol (language) which a computer can use to communicate with other computers, particularly on the internet.


Unit of measurement for pieces of information : approximately 1 trillion bytes, 1 billion kilobytes, 1 million megabytes or 1000 gigabytes. That”s a lot of data.


WAN(Wide Area Network)

A sort of group of networks, or more properly LANs, connected together.


A Windows feature which presents a user with simple menus or options for what would otherwise be a complex task, and carries them out automatically. Almost all Windows programs are installed via Wizards, but they are also widely used inside Windows programs. Word Processor A program used for creating documents, letters etc. By far the best.